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first_imgThe scanning electron micrograph at left shows an overview of the silicon track, designed to coax the bacteria into moving in a uniform direction around the circular tracks. In the center, two cells glide along the wall in the track. The illustration at right of a circular track shows how the bacteria bind to and pull the rotor. Image credit: Yuichi Hiratsuka, et al. A new motor designed by scientists from Japan offers the best of both worlds: the living and the non-living. The group built a hybrid micromachine that is powered by gliding bacteria which travels on an inorganic silicon track and pushes a silicon dioxide rotor. The combination takes advantage of the precise engineering of synthetic devices along with the efficient energy conversion and potential for self-repair of biological systems. “Originally, we were studying the basic science of biological motors, so we routinely observed the motilities of motor proteins or bacterial or eukaryotic cells under a microscope,” said Hiratsuka. “Those graceful motilities driven by biological motors were so attractive and we started thinking of creating hybrid devices that integrate inorganic materials and biological materials. Several years ago, we succeeded in developing a system in which microtubules powered by the kinesin motor move in one direction in circular micro tracks [Ref#1 in paper]. As a natural continuation of this work, we attempted to make a micro rotary motor driven by the kinesin-microtubule system. But this turned out to be rather difficult due to technical problems. Meanwhile, we saw a presentation by Prof. (Makoto) Miyata of Osaka City Univ., who is now our close collaborator, showing a movie of mycoplasma cells gliding unidirectionally on glass surfaces. It immediately occurred to us that we should be able to make micro rotary motors if we used these bacterial cells instead of the kinesin-microtubule system.”Although Hiratsuka’s group used a slower-moving mutant strain of M. mobile for binding purposes in this study, they observed significant results on the premier run. Once the bacteria reached the circular tracks, the rotors began moving within minutes at rates of up to 2.6 rpm. Even though they could not observe the number of cells pushing the rotors in this set-up, the scientists estimated that only a few cells are needed to drive motion. Further, the team predicts that improving the directional uniformity of the bacteria, as well as increasing the sialic acid content on the track, are achievable goals that will allow more cells to drive a larger number of rotors at a higher rpm.Hiratsuka et al. also proposed in their study genetically engineering M. mobile for stronger binding to the track and rotors, as well as adding chemicals to the bacteria that urge the cells to move in a uniform direction with chemical clues. In order to avoid potential biohazards, however, the scientists also considered an interesting alternative stemming from the work of scientists Uenoyama and Miyata: M. mobile “ghosts,” which are not alive due to partial membrane dissolution, but still demonstrate gliding.Citation: Hiratsuka, Yuichi, Miyata, Makoto, Tada, Tetsuya and Uyeda, Taro Q. P. “A microrotary motor powered by bacteria.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. vol. 103. no. 37. 13618-13623.By Lisa Zyga, Copyright 2006 PhysOrg.com Yuichi Hiratsuka and his colleagues used a species of bacteria called Mycoplasma mobile to power their micromechanical motor. M. mobile, which has micrometer-sized cell body that glides continuously over solid surfaces, can move at speeds of up to 5 micrometers per second. Scientists aren’t sure what causes the bacteria to move, other than that several proteins are involved, but Hiratsuka’s group was still able to take advantage of the gliding ability by using entire M. mobile cells. The whole cells have been observed to work “more efficiently and intelligently” than nature’s smaller motor machines (e.g., proteins and molecules), the scientists reported.”Mycoplasma is just one example of microorganisms with interesting and potentially useful properties,” Hiratsuka told PhysOrg.com. “For instance, there is a gliding bacterium that moves using energy provided by photosynthesis. Chlamyodomonas swim toward light (phototaxis), and Dictyostelium amoeba crawl toward a specific chemical substance (chemotaxis). Though there is no way we can predict what exciting micro devices will result from these organisms, for mycoplasma, we can suggest using it as a micro pump in a microTAS. This would eliminate the need for external pumps and pipes, becoming a ‘true’ on-chip device. We might also construct electric generator systems, which convert abundant chemical energy, glucose in the body, into electric energy. In far future plans, we would like to make micro-robots driven by biological motors, which could move around and do mechanical work in the micrometer world.” The mycoplasma-driven motor consists of a square central basin where the M. mobile are deposited. As the pear-shaped cells glide throughout the square, they eventually reach a side and move along it until approaching an entrance to one of four circular tracks. The entrance ways ensure that a majority of bacteria glide in the same direction around the tracks, which are each fitted with rotors that have protrusions in the track to allow the bacteria to bind to and pull the rotors (see figure).Although an efficiently simple design, the tiny size of the motor (e.g., each rotor is 20 micrometers in diameter) required special fabrication techniques. M. mobile cells require sialic proteins (in this case, fetuin was used) to glide over solid surfaces. The scientists created a top layer of gold on the silicon track, and then deposited the sialic-acid-containing fetuin on selected lithographic micropatterns to compel the desired movement of the bacteria. Explore furthercenter_img Citation: New motor first to be powered by living bacteria (2006, October 12) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2006-10-motor-powered-bacteria.html Growth failure in preterm infants tied to altered gut bacteria This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more


first_img The Downadup uses a complicated algorithm which changes daily and is based on timestamps from public websites such as Google.com and Baidu.com. The worm then generates many possible domain names every day.Names such as: qimkwaify .ws, mphtfrxs .net, gxjofpj .ws, imctaef .cc, and hcweu .org. It would be impossible to shut them all down because there’s just too many and most of them aren’t even registered. The bad guys running the show only need to register one domain for the day, register it, and set up a website. From there they can gain access to all of the infected machines.In order for the F-Secure Response Team to determine just how many machines are infected, they will register some of the possible domains and connect to the infected machines. Right now the Response Team is seeing hundreds of thousands of unique IP addresses connecting to the domains they have registered. A large portion of that traffic is coming from corporate networks, through firewalls, proxies, and NAT routers. This clearly shows that one unique IP address can be connected to thousands of corporate machines. All this could have been avoided if more users had patched the vulnerability in how Windows processes remote procedure call (RPC) requests by the Windows Server service. Microsoft issued a critical out-of-band patch, bulletin MS08-067, to fix this problem.Microsoft Security Bulletin MS08-067: www.microsoft.com/technet/secu … lletin/MS08-067.mspx© 2009 PhysOrg.com Citation: Downadup Worm Hits Over 3.5 Million Computers (2009, January 16) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2009-01-downadup-worm-million.html (PhysOrg.com) — Security firm F-Secure has advised that the Downadup worm has spread to more than 3.5 million computers by exploiting a vulnerability Microsoft patched last October. This is achieved by trying to connect to various Web addresses. The worm then looks for an active Web server at one of these domains and downloads and runs a particular executable file. This allows the malware to do whatever it wants with all of the infected computers. Explore furthercenter_img Miracle machine makes heroic rescues and leaves patients in limbo This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more


first_img This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Apple sets new operating systems for iPhone, Mac Image: MuscleNerd/Twitter Citation: iOS 5 jailbroken before its release (2011, June 7) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-06-ios-jailbroken.html Explore furthercenter_img © 2010 PhysOrg.com The jailbreak was announced on Twitter, by a user named MuscleNerd. In addition to the tweet MuscleNerd posted two photographs as proof. The first image showed the new iOS with the Cydia store installed on the device. The second showed that root access to the OS had been gained. The hardware used to run iOS 5, since devices with this OS have not been released yet, was an iPod touch 4G which has a beta version installed on it. MuscleNerd is best known as part of the iPhone Dev Team that jailbreak iOS devices. In order to break the device MuscleNerd had to use Geohot’s Limera1n exploit. This adds a big drawback to your iPhone, since it now has to be tethered in order to boot. So, do not try this one at home unless you are willing to connect your iPhone to a PC every time you want to be able to turn it on. On the bright side, this break will work on the final version of the device so if you choose to do this you will be able to jailbreak on the day of release. iPhone running on iOS 5 will be released in fall of this year. (PhysOrg.com) — The beta version of iOS has already been jailbroken, which is interesting when you consider that the iOS 5 was only announced 24 hours prior to the jailbreak, at the Apple keynote address at WWDC. The presentation, which was not devoted exclusively to the iOS 5, did detail some new features that users of the unbroken OS can expect to be able to use. last_img read more


first_img More information: A Fully Size-Resolved Perspective on the Crystallization of Water Clusters, Science, 21 September 2012: Vol. 337 no. 6101 pp. 1529-1532. DOI: 10.1126/science.1225468ABSTRACTThe number of water molecules needed to form the smallest ice crystals has proven challenging to pinpoint experimentally. This information would help to better understand the hydrogen-bonding interactions that account for the macroscopic properties of water. Here, we report infrared (IR) spectra of precisely size-selected (H2O)n clusters, with n ranging from 85 to 475; sodium doping and associated IR excitation–modulated photoionization spectroscopy allowed the study of this previously intractable size domain. Spectral features indicating the onset of crystallization are first observed for n = 275 ± 25; for n = 475 ± 25, the well-known band of crystalline ice around 3200 cm−1 dominates the OH-stretching region. The applied method has the potential to push size-resolved IR spectroscopy of neutral clusters more broadly to the 100- to 1000-molecule range, in which many solvents start to manifest condensed phase properties. Explore further (Phys.org)—It would seem that figuring out how many molecules of water are needed to form the smallest, or most basic ice crystal would have been discovered long ago, but that is not the case, because to measure both the size and structure of a water molecule cluster at the same time, two types of devices must be used, which up till now meant one disturbing the other, ruining the results. Now a group of chemists working at the Max Planck Institute has discovered a way around that problem and report that the minimum number of water molecules necessary to form an ice crystal is 275. In their paper published in the journal Science, the team describes the process they developed and how they obtained their results. Citation: Chemists find smallest number of water molecules needed to form an ice crystal (2012, September 21) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-09-chemists-smallest-molecules-ice-crystal.html Finding may end a 30-year scientific debate Journal information: Sciencecenter_img Illustration of the emergence of the crystalline core in clusters containing more than 123 water molecules. The pictures of 293 and 600 water molecules show central slices of the clusters. Credit: Victoria Buch, Cristoph Pradzynski and Udo Buck © 2012 Phys.org To find out the lowest number of water molecules needed to form an ice crystal, a means of detecting water molecule clusters and how many molecules are in them must be used as well as a means of determining if that cluster is a crystal structure. To measure the first, researchers use mass spectrometry. To determine the second, infrared spectroscopy is used because the frequencies that are absorbed by chemical bonds that occur in regular water clusters are slightly different than those absorbed by ice crystals.To allow for both tests to be made at the same time, the team got around the problem of interference by doping just the surface of the water molecule clusters with sodium atoms. This allowed for mass spectrometry measurements of the cluster without disturbing its structure which meant that the team could also determine if the structure was a crystal using infrared spectroscopy.To find the smallest possible ice crystal was then a matter of brute force. The team measured water cluster sizes that ranged from 85 to 475 molecules and found that crystallization consistently occurred only after there were at least 275 molecules involved.The team suggests that smaller ice crystals cannot form due to their not being enough space after starting from a base around a center ring made of just six water molecules which are hydrogen bonded. They also suggest their method could also be used to study the crystal structure (and the way they grow) of other materials as well. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more


first_img This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Journal information: Nanotechnology More information: Jianling Meng, et al. “Nanographene charge trapping memory with a large memory window.” Nanotechnology. DOI: 10.1088/0957-4484/26/45/455704 © 2015 Phys.org Graphene quantum dot flash memories look promising for data storage Citation: Nanographene charge trapping memory could further miniaturize flash (2015, November 5) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2015-11-nanographene-memory-miniaturize.htmlcenter_img (Phys.org)—Flash memory—the data storage method often used in phones, computers, and other devices—is continually being miniaturized in order to improve device performance. In an attempt to reduce the short-circuiting that often occurs as memory cells become smaller and more closely packed, researchers have been investigating graphene-based charge trapping memory as an alternative to the traditional floating gate memory. Now in a new paper, researchers have developed a nanographene-based charge trapping memory that exhibits some of the best performance statistics for any such device reported to date. The researchers, led by Dongxia Shi and Guangyu Zhang at the Chinese Academy of Sciences in Beijing (Zhang is also with the Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter in Beijing), have published a paper on the new memory device in a recent issue of Nanotechnology.”As we all know, we are in an era of information explosion,” Jianling Meng, from the Chinese Academy of Sciences and first author of the paper, told Phys.org. “To improve data storage, it is necessary to decrease the footprint of a single node in order to achieve a high density of data storage. Thus, it is a research hot point to keep shrinking flash memories. The biggest advantage for phones and computers having smaller flash memories is a larger storage capacity. Also, smaller flash memories can improve the program/erase speed of the data.”In general, shrinking the conventional floating gate memory cell is problematic because it causes short circuits. This happens because the floating gates where the electrons are stored are conductors, and so electrons can easily flow between them when the tiny cells are too close together. An advantage of charge trapping memory is that the charge trapping layer where the electrons are stored is an insulator, so shrinking these cells does not cause short circuits nearly to the extent that it does in floating gate memory cells.In a charge trapping memory, electrons and other charge carriers are stored (or “trapped”) in tiny defects in the graphene, which the researchers call “nanographene islands.” The more nanographene islands, the more charge that can be stored, resulting in a higher memory capacity. In the new study, the researchers developed a method for fabricating nanographene with a density estimated at more than a trillion (1012) nanographene islands per square centimeter. Their strategy uses a technique called plasma etching to create large numbers of defects as well as extended defects along the edges of the main defects. The large number of charge trapping sites provided by the defects enabled the researchers to fabricate a memory device with a very competitive memory performance. One measure of large capacitance is a large memory window, which indicates that a large number of charge carriers have been trapped. Tests here revealed that the new memory has the largest ever memory window (9 volts) reported to date for a graphene-based charge trapping memory. In addition, this large memory window was maintained even after 1,000 program/erase cycles. Overall, the researchers hope that this high-density memory will provide a path toward shrinking flash memory to even smaller scales.”Our future research plan in this area is to realize a footprint as small as the tip of an atomic force microscope,” Meng said. Explore further (Left) Atomic force microscope image of the nanographene film with a high density of nanographene islands, which provide more charge-trapping sites to increase store capacity. (Right) Structure of the nanographene-based charge trapping memory. Credit: Meng, et al. ©2015 IOP Publishinglast_img read more


Carlos Santana, the 10-time Grammy winner and guitar legend, is in Delhi with wife Cindy Blackman for a performance at the F1 Rocks. He had, earlier in Bangalore, told the press ‘in our hearts, we are all one.’ Spreading the same message of world peace at the Delhi presser, Santana said, ‘I still adhere and live by the principles of the 60’s and music for me is to bring about global peace at large.’‘What religion and politics failed to achieve, like human trafficking and child labour, we are trying to do away with by spreading the message of peace and love,’ the 65-year-old said. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’‘We want to make music, heal people, honour and respect women and children so that we can stop war all over the world,’ he said.Santana, a self proclaimed hippie, said the true hippie is is an individual ‘who does not belong to a herd.’He added it is about taking a stand. ‘We, during the movement in the 60’s, clearly made a point across to the Pentagon and then President Richard Nixon that no we are not afraid to die but we won’t die to make him richer.’ Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with Netflix‘The youth today’, he quipped,’ ‘have other preoccupations like the stupid TV.’ He added the spirit of a hippie lies in having ‘the courage to go against the corrupt system and to agree to disagree.’Dressed in a Hawaiian printed shirt and trousers, a black hat, Santana was accompanied by his wife Cindy Blackman.About his music he said: ‘My music is 99 percent African. Like spirituality and spices are to India, rhythm is to Africa.’He added: When I play music, it’s more than Mexican or American or Cubic. It is more than a genre. It is to re-connect with your heart, something we learned from you. India, he said, is the land of spirituality, of great people like Mahatma Gandhi and Mother Teresa who taught world peace.Santana said that he is open to any collaboration with Indian artistes but the time and music has to be right. ‘I would have loved to collaborate with Ali Akbar Khan, but it didn’t happen till now’.Santana said he is in awe of Indian food. ‘I wish there was a television channel wholly dedicated to Indian cuisines.’ ‘We had masala dosa for our breakfast,’ quipped his wife Cindy. read more


first_imgThere are a lot of treadmill exercises one can do. These moves will not only strengthen your entire body but will also get your heart rate shooting up to burn calories, says an expert.Here are a few suggested workouts that could be tried on the treadmill:* Walking lunges: Performing them on a treadmill removes the obstacles so that you can focus on the move and get the most from every leg-burning lunge.* Side shuffles: Side shuffles work both your inner and outer thighs, while also toning you calves and doubling as a cardio exercise. Also Read – Add new books to your shelf* Walking plank: This variation works the front of your shoulders like no other, while forcing your stabilizers to work harder than ever.* Reverse mountain climbers: While a traditional mountain climber will work your entire body, this variation places more emphasis on kicking your legs back, as opposed to driving your knees in. That’s good news if you’re trying to sculpt your backside. *Crab walk: You probably haven’t done a crab walk since grade school gym, but it’s still a great exercise. Do it on a treadmill, and it will work your hamstrings, glutes, triceps, and core like crazy.* Treadmill push: Pushing a weighted sled is a seriously challenging exercise. By turning off your treadmill and running forward on it, you can mimic that motion. But not all treadmill belts can move when the treadmill is turned off. So if you have trouble moving the belt, stop trying and move on to a different exercise.last_img read more


first_imgKolkata: Five persons were arrested in New Town for allegedly extorting money by posing as IPS officers and National Investigation Agency (NIA) officials.Police sources informed that sleuths recently came to know about some ‘NIA officials’ who had visited some offices in New Town regarding some investigation and demanded money from several offices. On Tuesday night, police came to know that the same officials had come to an office near Akansha crossing. Immediately, a team reached the office and confronted the so-called NIA officials and asked for their identity cards. Also Read – Bose & Gandhi: More similar than apart, says Sugata BoseAccording to sources, the said NIA officials tried to dominate the on-duty Sub-Inspector Pravakar Adhikary, by saying that an IPS officer of SP rank was there, who would arrange a departmental inquiry against him. Seeing their behaviour, Adhikary sensed foulplay. Despite the accused persons trying to dominate him, the Sub-Inspector again asked for their identity cards. This time, an identity card was shown. Adhikary immediately informed his superior officers about the said incident and Bidhannagar Police got in touch with NIA Salt Lake office, where it was verified that there is no such officer in the NIA. Immediately, all five of them were detained. Also Read – Rs 13,000 crore investment to provide 2 lakh jobs: MamataDuring a search that followed, police found a lighter which exactly looked like a 9 mm pistol. A red SUV fitted with a blue beacon on the roof and police sticker pasted on the front and rear windshields, a bike and some fake identity cards were seized from them. Later, the five accused identified as Dilip Sharma of Golabari, Howrah, Amar Sharma of Muchipara, Gopal Karmakar of Dum Dum, Sanjoy Show of Beliaghata and Fakaruddin Ali of Narkeldanga Main Road, were arrested. They have been booked under sections 384 IPC (punishment for extortion), 419 IPC (punishment for cheating by personation), 468 IPC (forgery for purpose of cheating) and 120B IPC (punishment for criminal conspiracy). The accused stated that they needed money urgently to start a business, which led to their actions.last_img read more


first_imgKolkata: Authorities of the Victoria Memorial Hall have considerably reduced its entry fees for SAARC nationals to attract more visitors from these countries.The entry fee, which was Rs 500 per person, has been slashed to Rs 100 with effect from March 1. People from countries such as Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, Maldives, Sri Lanka, Afganisthan and Pakistan will now have to dole out Rs 100 only for a visit to the Victoria Memorial. The entry fee for home visitors, which is Rs 30, remains unchanged. Also Read – Bose & Gandhi: More similar than apart, says Sugata Bose”We had two broad classifications when it came to the entry at the Victoria Memorial Hall — Indians and Foreigners. For Indians, the entry fee was Rs 30 and for foreigners it was Rs 500.Our staff, who man the ticket counters brought it to our notice that people from SAARC countries particularly from Bangladesh, Nepal and Bhutan often complain about the high entry fees.Many of them visit the Victoria Memorial Hall on more than one occasion for various purposes. We discussed the matter at our board of trustees and we decided to reduce the entry fees for the SAARC nationals. We also wrote to the Ministry of Culture for their approval and have got the permission to bring down the entry fee from Rs 500 to Rs 100,” said the Victoria Memorial Hall curator and secretary, Jayanta Sengupta. The SAARC nationals will have to furnish their passport at the ticket counters to avail of the facilities. Also Read – Rs 13,000 crore investment to provide 2 lakh jobs: MamataApart from normal visitors, scholars from SAARC countries also come to the Victoria Memorial for research activities on Bengal’s rich history, art and culture and architecture. Several specimens of Bengal’s architecture are present in Victoria Memorial Hall’s collection. According to a senior official, out of 38 lakh visitors in a year, around 90,000 are foreigners and a majority of them are from SAARC countries. However, the Victoria Memorial authorities have doubled its entry fees to the garden from Rs 10 to Rs 20. It may be mentioned here that out of 38 lakh annual visitors at the Victoria Memorial, 18 lakh avail of the tickets for the garden alone. The authorities have also brought about a change in the timing of entry at the Victoria Memorial with effect from January 28 this year.On weekends, the timings to visit the heritage structure are 10 am to 8 pm. In May last year, the Victoria Memorial had for the first time in 97 years, increased the timing of both the museum and the lawns by an hour from 5pm to 6pm on all days except Monday, when the museum is shut.last_img read more


first_imgFocusing on health in the hectic and stressful lives that we lead today is becoming difficult. Incorporating relevant herbs in your daily diet is the first step towards a healthier you. Ayurveda texts and modern research say that herbs contain compounds that have beneficial health properties that can help prevent many lifestyle disorders and rejuvenate our bodies. Experts suggest incorporating the following herbs in your daily diet to practice preventive wellness and take a concrete step towards maintaining good health. Also Read – Add new books to your shelfTulsi: Popularly known as “The Queen of Herbs”, it yields beneficial results for respiratory wellness. It has compounds which are known to have anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and expectorant properties. Tulsi helps modulate healthy immune response and supports early recovery from respiratory conditions. Use it to get relief from cough and cold, especially during seasonal changes, when your body is particularly prone to such respiratory ailments. Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsiveAshvagandha: This herb contains rejuvenating properties, and being an adaptogen, helps cope with stress, reduces harmful effects of long-term stress on the body, and promotes healthy sleep. This makes it particularly useful in our stressful lives, where good work-life balance is often difficult to maintain. Triphala: It’s difficult to always consume healthy and hygienically prepared food in our hectic lifestyle, making digestive issues a common problem. Triphala helps promote overall digestive wellness in a number of ways. It acts as an effective colon cleanser, regularises normal bowel movements, and aids healthy digestion. Neem: This helps fight acne by inhibiting the bacteria that causes acne growth. The herb helps promote skin wellness, which becomes even more important during summer, when the skin is more prone to acne breakouts and inflammation. It helps rejuvenate your skin, and prevents the recurrence of acne and blemishes.Haridra: This herb contains beneficial inflammation-relieving properties. It boosts cell health through its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, helping improve overall health. This makes it a potent tool in your preventive wellness toolkit, helping you overcome a number of health problems before they even have a chance to make an appearance Guduchi: This herb supports the immune system and helps fight against infections by increasing the effectiveness of disease-fighting white blood cells. Including this herb in your daily diet will help increase your body’s resistance to stress and illness.Make a commitment to getting healthier and staying fit by including these health-boosting herbs in your daily diet. Regular usage of these herbs in addition to other activities such as exercising and consuming a balanced diet will lead to a healthier, happier you.last_img read more